Water 101: Use, sanitation, access

The following text is originally lifted from the trivia section of The Jakarta Post.

~Compiled from various sources~

  • According to the World Bank, more than 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to clean water, and 2.6 billion lack access to basic sanitation.
  • The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) include a target to halve by 2015 the number of people worldwide without access to water and sanitation.
  • The cost of inadequate water supply and sanitation are high: 1.6 million children die every year from diarrhoea, mainly as a result of inadequate sanitation, water supply and hygiene, the World Bank says.
  • In Indonesia, every year about 100,000 children die from diarrhoea, the second-highest cause of death in children after malnutrition.
  • Indonesia has 6% of the world's water supply, or 21% of the water supply in Asia Pacific, but the quality and quantity have been decreasing.
  • The 13 rivers that run thru Jakarta are polluted by E. coli bacteria - and so is 70% of ground water.
  • Only 55% of the Indonesian population has access to sanitation.
  • It is estimated that by 2019, there will be 150.2 million people living in urban areas in Indonesia, with water consumption per capita reaching 125 litres - meaning total water demand will reach 18.77 billion litres per day.
  • According to the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), water demand by the industrial sector will increase by 700% by 2025, while water demand for housing and food production will grow by 65% and 100%, respectively.
  • Tap water is used by 46.6% of urban households and 11% of rural households.
  • Rural households are more likely to use unprotected water sources such as springs, rivers and rainwater.
  • In urban areas, water access requires a cash outlay as half of all urban dwellers and 42% of the urban poor purchase water, compared with only 15% of the rural population.
  • In urban areas, 66% of households have drinking water facilities, such as house or yard taps (including 55% of the urban poor), compared with 48% in rural areas.
  • The water supply on Java is 1,750 cubic metres per capita per year, below the minimum standard of 2,000 cubic metres per capita per year. The figure is expected to continue to fall to reach 1,200 cubic metres by 2020.
  • Water companies in Indonesia source their water from 201 rivers, 248 springs and 91 artesian walls.
  • Ciliwung River is the city's most polluted river, containing between 1.6 and 3 million individual E. coli bacteria per 100 cc of water. Many residents living by the river depend on it as their source of water.

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